Matehuka momo 2 Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes happens when your body can not use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This makes your blood glucose levels high. It is the most common form of diabetes and may be prevented by following a healthy lifestyle.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

  • feeling thirsty
  • passing lots of wee (urine)
  • feeling tired and lacking energy
  • getting infections more easily, such as skin infections
  • not healing well
  • having blurry vision.

You can have Type 2 diabetes without knowing as you do not have any symptoms. This is why it is important to have a screening blood test.

Who is most at risk of getting type 2 diabetes

You are at a greater risk of getting type 2 diabetes if you:

  • have diabetes in your whānau
  • are Māori, Pacific or South Asian
  • are over 45 years old
  • are overweight
  • had diabetes when you were pregnant
  • have polycystic ovaries
  • are on long-term steroid or antipsychotic medication.

Self care for type 2 diabetes

You may be able to control and for some people even reverse your diabetes by doing the following:

  • eating well with diabetes
  • being physically active — aiming for 30 minutes a day
  • losing weight if needed.

Have regular check ups with your healthcare provider. This can help prevent or find complications of diabetes.

Eating well with diabetes — HealthInfo (external link)

Complications of diabetes

Treating type 2 diabetes

You may need to take medicine for your diabetes.

Metformin is the most commonly used. It helps your body use insulin to reduce your blood glucose. It also helps some people lose weight.

Other medicines include:

  • sulphonylureas (glipizide, glibenclamide)
  • DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin)
  • alpha‑glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose)
  • glitazones (pioglitazone)
  • dulaglutide (Trulicity).

Some people with diabetes need to use insulin injections.

Preventing type 2 diabetes

You may be able to prevent getting type 2 diabetes by:

  • making healthy food choices
  • doing at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day
  • keeping a healthy weight.

Eating well for good health — HealthInfo (external link)

Diagnosing type 2 diabetes

If you have risk factors for diabetes, talk to your healthcare provider about when you should start having screening blood tests. This will check if you are heading towards getting diabetes (prediabetes).

Your healthcare provider can organise a blood test called HbA1c to find out if you have diabetes or prediabetes.

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